Safety In The Throwing Events
Article By: William Byron
Esperanza High School, Anaheim, CA
importance of safety in the throwing events cannot be overstated.
In high school only the Pole Vault has a great history of serious
injuries incurred by participants and spectators. In high school
the throwing events concerned are the shot put and discus.
A Word of Warning
The first item on the agenda of any throwing coach should
be assembling the throwers on the first day and making the point
that these implements "can kill you````". Deaths have been recorded
in the past among throwers and spectators. This does not mean throwing
has to be a hazardous activity, only that throwing is like crossing
a street. No one would walk a busy street blindly without looking
both ways. Similarly, any athlete in the vicinity of throwing workouts
or competition must be observant. In terms of liability for a coach,
he/she must let the throwers know serious injury and death are a
possibility. Yet, with proper caution being exercised, no one should
suffer a scratch.
The first key to safety is being observant. Any implement
can be avoided if an athlete sees it coming. Throwers in the ring
need to be observant for casual observers, people crossing the throwing
area heading for other school destinations, and runners who may
be in the throwing area or heading into it. The majority of non-throwers
have no familiarity at all with throwing events. Most don't realize
that the thrower begins with his back to the throwing area, making
him blind to the landing area, or that the implements often land
out of the sector and that the thrower (particularly beginners)
may have little idea where the implement is going. As a result,
the thrower needs to call out a warning to anyone approaching the
throwing area. They also need to understand that if the person stares
dumbly at them and continues to walk across their landing area,
they must resist the urge to throw anyway and wait until the area
is clear before they throw.
Ideally, from a safety point of view, a coach could
have all the throwers throw and then have all of them walk out together
to retrieve their implements. This way no one would be in danger
of being hit. In the real world, however, coaches and athletes are
working with a limited amount of time, and this method of working
out takes a greater amount of time since the ring will be empty
as all the throwers walk to their implements. A more practical solution
is to have the throwers retrieve their own implements as other throwers
throw, so that throwing time in the ring is maximized. Thus, throwers
must learn to throw and then retrieve their implements taking a
wide path outside the sector. They must also be looking backwards
the majority of the time they are retrieving their implement. They
should never be in front of the cage when someone else is throwing.
No one can count on dodging a discus inside a 100' range, so approach
from the side.
The key in discus safety is the cage. Ideally a cage fits the specifications
given in the high school handbook or the specifications from the
official body. This insures that the front poles of the cage extend
beyond the front of the ring, minimizing the area that foul throws
can land in. The poles and cage can be placed or closed if the screen
is movable a few feet from the sector line.
If spectators are present, a string of flags or ropes
are a necessity. These restraints should set back 30 or 40 feet
as opposed to the often seen 10 or 15 feet. Since spectators will
often be sitting in lawn chairs, they will react slowly to errant
throws and need to be forced to set up far away by restraining flags.
Whenever possible, advise your athletes to sit along the left side
of the sector if they are going to watch. The majority of throwers
are right-handed, so the majority of foul throws are lost on the
right. They should sit either behind the screen or well beyond what
any thrower in the competition is capable of throwing since landing
discs will often bounce erratically or roll well beyond the landing
site. If a ring does not have a cage, keep everyone behind a line
drawn by the back line of the ring.
During competition the judges running the throwing
events must make sure that the persons making the throws have their
faces turned toward the thrower and that they are not bent over
marking a previous throw as a second thrower begins to throw. Another
common discus safety problem is that throwers will stand next to
a cage that has netting for sides. While netting prevents a discus
from bouncing back off the screen towards the thrower, netting also
will move several feet outward when the discus hits the net. If
a thrower stands next to the net, he may be hit. Therefore, throwers
usually need to be cautioned to stand away from netting.
The Shot Put
Since the shot ring has no cage, throwers in the area of a shot
must be alert even though putters typically lose far fewer throws
out of sector than other events, although rotational throwers will
be more erratic than gliders. Again, resting or waiting throwers
should be behind the ring or well beyond the possible landing area,
not along the foul lines.